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Origine del piemontese: un confronto tra la teoria tradizionale e il paradigma della continuità paleolitica
Set 24th, 2010 by linguapiemontese

L’origine del piemontese è ancora controversa, come quella di ogni altro idioma indoeuropeo. Fino a poco tempo fa  la teoria più alla moda in linguistica raccontava che tutte le lingue indoeuropee provenissero da un’unica parlata utilizzata più o meno 5000 anni fa.

Dove? Forse nella pianura che oggi è ucraina. Ad un certo punto agli abitanti di questa zona viene voglia di andare a conquistare tutto il mondo dall’Irlanda a Gibilterra all’India.

indoeuropei

Appena arrivati nei nuovi luoghi le lingue si dividono ad una velocità che ci lascia stupefatti. In pochi secoli si forma il grosso delle differenze che troviamo tra l’antico greco, il latino ed il sanscrito.

Dalla conquista si salvano solo pochi popoli, come i Liguri nelle nostre zone, gli Etruschi in Toscana ed i Baschi tra Francia e Spagna.

In Piemonte arrivano anche gli invasori celtici, che sono uno dei rami degli indoeuropei, mescolandosi con i Liguri che non lo sono.

Alla fine i Romani si prendono tutto, imponendo il latino, ma la ruota gira ancora…

I popoli barbarici, di razza germanica, fanno saltare il piatto, frantumano in tanti pezzi quello che era il vecchio impero. E’ questa l’epoca di formazione dei diversi dialetti neolatini, tra cui il piemontese.

Le diversità che oggi riscontriamo persino tra i vernacoli di due paesi confinanti sono nati dall’isolamento medievale delle varie comunità e sotto la forza di trasformazione interna di ogni lingua.

Ci siamo fin qui? Rivediamo i passaggi per ipotizzare l’origine del piemontese: fingiamo che sia come in un libro di cucina:

L’origine del piemontese nella ricetta (teoria) tradizionale

1)      Prendete un popolo non indoeuropeo, quello ligure e spargetelo in tutto il Piemonte.

2)      Prendete il popolo indoeuropeo e versatelo in più di mezza Europa, ma non ancora in Piemonte.

3)      Mettete il lievito del mutamento linguistico per far nascere per forza interna, solo grazie all’isolamento, le diverse famiglie indoeuropee. Tenete a portata di mano la celtica, la latina e la germanica.

4)      Portate i Celti francesi (Galli) di qua delle montagne e fate loro conquistare almeno la zona a nord del Po.

5)      Mescolate vorticosamente l’ingrediente celtico e quello ligure.

6)      Fate portare da Roma la lingua popolare latina e inondate con essa tutta la Pianura Padana.

7)      Spostate i barbari germanici in Europa Occidentale, compreso il Piemonte, e mescolate un’altra volta.

8)      Lasciate raffreddare millecinquecento anni con un’altra dose di lievito di mutamento linguistico ed isolamento per ottenere i dialetti attuali.

Siete pronti per la scorpacciata? Bene, aspettate un momento però…

Il paradigma della continuità paleolitica in pillole

Da pochi anni il Professor Mario Alinei, un linguista italiano che ha insegnato per decenni in Olanda ha fatto un po’ di osservazioni che hanno rovinato la digestione ai vecchi linguisti.

1)      Non c’è alcuna traccia archeologica di una grande o piccola invasione indoeuropea in Europa, anche se i linguisti “tradizionalisti” fanno finta di non saperlo.

2)      Sappiamo praticamente nulla dell’antico Ligure, così la fantasia dei linguisti può allegramente sbizzarrirsi.

3)      Una lingua lasciata tranquilla, senza stranieri invasori fra i piedi, non ha alcun motivo per cambiare la struttura, i suoni, le regole. Può solo aggiungere dei vocaboli se nascono nuove idee o cose, oppure può perderne se vecchie idee o cose non esistono più. Ogni lingua in isolamento tende a rimanere immutabile e non a mutare per qualche misteriosa forza interna.

4)      Ne deriva che una lingua può cambiare solo sotto l’influenza di un’altra lingua che le “pesta i piedi” e ciò accade per cause sociopolitiche, come un’invasione seguita da uno stanziamento di un’elite straniera nel territorio.

5)      E’ normale che in una società stratificata si parli più di una lingua: quella ufficiale parlata dall’elite culturale e i dialetti parlati da chi ne è fuori.

6)      I dialetti conservano tracce del passato che si sono perdute nelle lingue dell’elite.

7)      I dialetti risentono dell’influenza della lingua elitaria, tendendo solitamente a diventare più simili a questa.

8)      I confini dialettali sovente ricalcano antichissimi confini fra culture preistoriche.

Il paradigma della continuità neolitica applicato al Piemonte

Come si può notare, gli ingredienti per spiegare l’origine del piemontese cambiano, ma prendendo per buoni i nuovi e senza essere troppo sofisticati, assaggiamo le pietanze più rivoluzionarie per la nostra cultura.

1)      Gli indoeuropei  sono in Europa, più o meno nei luoghi dove si trovano adesso, da ben prima che nascesse l’agricoltura. Una forma già latineggiante di indoeuropeo deve essere stata in Piemonte per millenni. L’archeologia linguistica sta trovando sempre più numerosi indizi di questo fatto assolutamente rivoluzionario per la linguistica dominante.

2)      I confini dialettali che passano nella Valsusa e dividono l’area galloitalica (dialetti fratelli come piemontese, lombardo, ligure, emiliano), l’area francoprovenzale (valdostano, savoiardo ecc.) e quella occitana (provenzale) erano già confini preistorici.

3)      Tutti i dialetti che conosciamo non nascono dopo il crollo dell’Impero Romano, ma sono parlati da decine di secoli su una base già latineggiante, ma preromana.

4)      Le diverse lingue elitarie (importante da noi il celtico) hanno fatto pressione cambiando in parte i dialetti.

Influenze esterne (superstrati ed adstrati) sul piemontese

Se facessimo una classifica delle lingue che “pestano i piedi” alla nostra lingua piemontese troveremmo quanto segue.

1)      L’inglese, che preme le lingue nazionali in quanto lingua dell’elite militare-finanziaria-tecnologica.

2)      L’italiano, la minaccia più seria pechè lingua dello Stato, dell’istruzione, dei mezzi di comunicazione e delle minoranze immigrate.

3)      Un’altra lingua ha schiacciato il piemontese per mille anni: il francese.

4)      I dialetti vicini (provenzale, francoprovenzale, lombardo e genovese) hanno influenzato il piemontese in certe epoche.

5)      Nel passato tutti i popoli invasori (celti, romani, germani) hanno rappresentato elite che con le loro lingue hanno influenzato il dialetto locale.

Che cosa è stato il piemontese? La lingua dell’elite regionale, concentrata nella città di Torino all’epoca del Ducato di Savoia e del Regno di Sardegna.

Ora mantiene questo piccolo primato essendo la forma torinese quella utilizzata nei pochi scritti che vengono ancora prodotti nel nostro idioma locale.

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