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Etimologia piemontese dei sentimenti
Apr 1st, 2011 by linguapiemontese

L’etimologia è la scienza che ricerca l’origine delle parole. In particolare suo fine è il raggiungimento  dell’iconimo, la parola usata come motivazione per l’introduzione di un nuovo termine.

etimologia sentimenti

Il titolo del post può apparire strano, ma si riferisce ad un fatto comune a molte lingue. Le parole che raccontano di sentimenti, emozioni umane e simili traggono spesso origine da oggetti e comportamenti concreti.

Essi, infatti, vengono assunti come metafora per lo stato d’animo, di per sè nozione astratta. Anche in piemontese esistono vocaboli  che seguono tale caratteristica.

Calma e Stufi

Abbiamo già scritto di due di essi in un precedente post relativo all’influenza di un antichissimo (neolitico?) adstrato ellenico sul piemontese: CALMA e STUFO che abbiamo fatto derivare da CAUMA (calore) e TYPHOS (vapore), collegati alle osservazioni pastorali delle greggi o mandrie che si riposano nelle ore di massima calura nei pascoli estivi.

Flin-a e Sbaruv

Aggiungerei altri vocaboli partendo da una ricerca facile: FLIN-A è la parola che indica un nervosismo tendente all’ira. Esso va oltre il semplice disappunto ed è trasparente nella derivazione dalla RABBIA FELINA. Essa è la grave malattia che portava a morte certa gli animali dopo una serie di gravi alterazioni del comportamento.

SBARUV è lo spavento e potrebbe essere legato a baruffa EX-BARUF oppure a paura EX-PAVOR.

Scheur e sgiaj

SCHEUR è invece il termine per lo schifo, il ribrezzo che deriva probabilmente da EX-COR, dal cuore. E’ da porsi forse in relazione al vomito che sembra provenire dal cuore agli occhi di una medicina non scientifica.

Ancora più difficile è il caso di SGIAJ, fare senso, essere ripugnante. Per esso seguiamo la suggestione fonetica verso un possibile EX GLADIO. Si tratta della reazione a fronte dello scempio compiuto dall’arma?

Deuit e matighé

DEUIT, parola sacra dell’educazione piemontese, traducibile alla lontana con garbo, è probabilmente un antico participio passato irregolare del verbo dovere (si può confrontare con cheuit=cotto). Si tratta quindi di compiere qualunque azione nel modo DOVUTO.

Di una persona che non agisce ritornando cupamente sui propri pensieri si dice che MATIGA, con semplice derivazione da MASTICARE, cioè ruminare ripetitivamente lo stesso pasto.

Etimologi nel fango: i nomi piemontesi della melma hanno cugini in tutta Europa
Mar 17th, 2011 by linguapiemontese

Fango, pozzanghera, palude costituiscono una famiglia di parole molto interessanti in piemontese.

fango

Nella nostra lingua si incontrano termini che rivelano parentele molto estese in ogni angolo d’Europa. Per verificarlo basta inserire FANGO nel traduttore di Google

I termini per “fango” nelle diverse lingue europee

Iniziamo dal termine MOTA, da coi smota (ex-mota=dal fango) con cui si indica una frana. Esso è presente in forme leggermente diverse in olandese, danese, inglese con estensione alle aree uraliche estoni e finlandesi. E’ probabilmente un termine germanico che si è diffuso anche oltre i ristretti confini linguistici. Suggestivo mi sembra il rapporto con la MALTA per costruzione. Non è impossibile un passaggio malta (termine di origine greca) a mauta e mota.

Un altro termine a noi famigliare per indicare il fango è il portoghese e galiziano LAMA con cui indichiamo qui un terreno paludoso. Secondo un’ipotesi suffragata da molti dati il greco LAMIA indicante un serpente-drago è alla base del termine in questione, sovente adoperato per indicare fiumi e torrenti.

Il termine ufficiale del fango in piemontese è PAUTA che è imparentato con l’albanese BALTE e gli slavi BLATO. Alla base può esserci il termine slavo POLA VODA (mezza acqua) da cui può derivare Palude.

Riassumendo troviamo termini di certa o supposta origine greco-balcanica.

L’età d’oro di fango e affini: il neolitico

Se si tiene in considerazione un possibile scenario preistorico per certi vocaboli ricordiamo che la fase di massimo interesse per fanghi, paludi, torbiere e simili era nella civiltà palafitticola nella pianura padana.

Una delle principali civiltà nell’Età del Bronzo è detta di Polada (località lacustre rivierasca quasi traslitterazione di Pola Voda), persino Padus, il nome latino del Po, può essere collegato.

Nella palta (ipotizzando fango=acqua ferma=palude) cosa si utilizzava? Il PALO per costruire le Palafitte e la PALA per smuovere la terra. Tutti termini presenti in piemontese e in latino.

I termini collegati al fango e agli impasti di terra in genere sembrano avere un’origine dalla zona balcanico egea, propria quella da cui proviene la prima ondata neolitica.

Essa si caratterizza non solo per l’agricoltura, ma anche per la rivoluzione nelle tecniche edilizie. La malta, la calce in questo contesto hanno un ruolo primario.

Altro nome riferito a melma and company è paciòch, paciarin-a e simili, non troppo diverso da pauta.

Ulisse o Asterix? Greco in Piemonte: tracce di influssi ellenici nel dialetto piemontese
Dic 23rd, 2010 by linguapiemontese

Il greco in Piemonte? Nel dialetto piemontese? La domanda farà ridere i tradizionalisti.

La dialettologia tradizionale ha riscontrato o ipotizzato influenze fortissime di Germani e Galli sui dialetti galloitalici.

Molte di queste influenze traspaiono dalle etimologie ricostruite per numerosi termini piemontesi.

Alle parole per cui non sembra rintracciabile una connessione celtica, germanica o latina viene affibbiata l’etichetta di preindoeuropeo o mediterraneo.

L’archeologia, tuttavia, non ha mai trovato tracce di una colossale invasione in cui i popoli indoeuropei avrebbero sostituito preesistenti e misteriosi popoli mediterranei.

Solo al sud, solo dal latino, solo termini dotti?

Apparentemente gli influssi ellenici sono limitati al sud dell’Italia per la parte popolare del lessico.

Altre influenze sono quelle mediate dal latino e quindi comuni a tutte le lingue romanze. Altre ancora sono terminologie dotte diffuse a livello internazionale.

Non stiamo trattando di questo, ma di una vena sottile, rilevabile solo a livello di indizi. Si possono ipotizzare contatti preromani tra la lingua ellenica e la zona compresa tra Pianura Padana occidentale e zone alpine occidentali. Immediato il richiamo alla colonia greca di Massalia, oggi Marsiglia, ma c’è di più.

Ciò che emerge dai dati archeologici con chiarezza è che l’agricoltura è nata nel Vicino Oriente, da lì è passata nei Balcani, partendo dalla Grecia. Da lì, nel corso di millenni si è diffusa in tutta Europa.

In particolare in tutta Italia la prima forma di cultura agricola è chiamata della ceramica impressa cardiale e proviene dall’Egeo.

ceramica cardiale

E’ plausibile quindi che il greco fosse uno degli idiomi parlati molti millenni fa dagli importatori in Italia dell’agricoltura.

Moltissimi termini neolitici, quindi legati a agricoltura, pastorizia, ceramica (principali novità dell’epoca) sono simili in greco e latino. Vista la direzione dell’ondata agricola, presumibilmente sono influenze greche sulla penisola.

In certi casi termini di origine greca sono andati a localizzarsi non in latino, ma nei dialetti occitani, con estensione all’area piemontese, cioè in una zona dove la prima cultura agricola ha lasciato profonde testimonianze.

Greco in Piemonte? Possibili termini neolitici ellenici

Ecco alcuni termini presunti di greco in Piemonte, residui dialettali, mai entrati nella lingua nazionale.

SAGMA, da cui SOMA, SOMARO, SOMET in piemontese, diffuso nell’area provenzale e alpina che si contrappone ad asino. Tale animale non è tipico dell’Europa occidentale ed ha seguito l’ondata neolitica agricola da est ad ovest portando con sè i vocaboli delle culture originarie.

ERCA, da ARCA, cioè la madia, il luogo ove riporre il pane, altro tipico prodotto di origine orientale.

TUF, da TYPHOS, vapore, nebbia, afa, altro termine greco, simile in piemontese e provenzale. Da tale termine potrebbe derivare STOFIA, STOFI, ipotizzando EX-TUF, pensando a chi sbuffa per la fatica.

CALMA, da CAUMA, in greco calore. E’ un termine pastorale, riferito al meriggio, quando nell’ora di massimo calore le mandrie si sistemano nei pianori a ruminare e riposare. Essendo il periodo di minore attività degli animali tale vocabolo è passato ad indicare il sentimento della tranquillità. Anche in questo caso l’allevamento del bestiame e quindi l’introduzione dell’agricoltura da oriente è una condizione necessaria per l’emergere del termine e si evidenzia la connessione greca.

TOMA, termine greco che deriva da TEMNO, tagliare, dividere, riferito al latte che deve essere diviso in sottoprodotti (siero, parte solida da cui nasce il formaggio).

GRIOTA, amarena o ciliegia selvatica. Il termine greco è AGRIOTES e significa precisamente selvatichezza.

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