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Il dialetto piemontese di San Raffaele Cimena: differenze dal torinese
Apr 3rd, 2011 by linguapiemontese

San Raffaele Cimena

Leggevo l’altro giorno di un progetto relativo allo studio dei dialetti in ogni paese  canavesano. Nella lista dei comuni interessati figurava anche San Raffaele Cimena, il mio paese di origine. L’inclusione nell’elenco mi è sembrata azzardata. Non è facile definire un confine del Canavese, ma certamente fargli superare verso sud il Po è ambiziosetto…

Comunque ne approfitto per dare uno schizzo breve, ma spero esauriente, della parlata locale.

Il modo più semplice per descrivere il dialetto è indicare le differenze con la parlata “ufficiale” torinese. Essa negli ultimi secoli è stata considerata la base del piemontese scritto.

Tratti tipici del dialetto di San Raffaele Cimena

Al primo posto indicherei il fenomeno della presenza di  I al posto di E nel plurale femminile: la gatta=la gata, ma le gatte=ij gati e non le gate come in torinese. Come si vede anche l’articolo segue tale tendenza: IJ, DIJ e non LE, DLE.

Fenomeno simile si riscontra nelle forme verbali della seconda persona singolare e plurale: di nuovo I al posto di E. Ad esempio tu pensi=ti’t pensi e non pense.

Al secondo posto metterei per importanza alcune forme verbali diverse dalla koiné:

Mi i l’heu – Ti it l’hai – Chiel a l’ha – Noi i l’oma – Vojàutri i l’héi – Lor a l’han. Stesso comportamento per sapere.

Mi i von – Ti it vai – Chiel a va- Noi i ‘ndoma – Vojàutri i ‘ndéj – Lor a van . Stesso comportamento per stare. Notevole la differenza nel congiuntivo: ch’a ston-a, ch’a von-a.

-èiss- nel congiuntivo diventa sempre -iss-. S’i l’avèissa diventa s’i l’avissa e questo vale per tutti i verbi.

Al terzo posto metterei l’opposizione tra Go e V dove Torino normalmente sta con la prima e San Raffaele Cimena con la seconda: goardé si dice vardé.

Altri tratti caratteristici minori

Ci sono indizi di una certa debolezza di V: venuto= vnùit suona piuttosto mnùit così come la palma = la ventajin-a da qualcuno è pronunciato la mantajin-a.

Il suono sti+vocale tende a diventare s-c : bestia=bes-cia

Certe domande vengono poste diversamente. Dov’è…? Anté ch’a l’é…?  Che cos’è…? Lòn ch’a l’é…?

Come non si usa mai: o si abbrevia (Me ch’a va?) o si sostituisce con péj d’in (parèj d’un).

Non ho inoltre mai sentito pronunciare le forme interrogative del tipo It  sas-to? e simili.

Dal punto di vista fonetico non ci sono particolarità di rilievo. La erre è pronunciata moscia da alcuni abitanti e non da altri, La esse, d’altra parte, tende al sibilo nel linguaggio non sostenuto. Non vi sono vocali con problemi di pronuncia: valgono in tutto le regole del torinese.

La U (U francese) non ama essere prima dell’accento e in questa posizione si trasforma in I: Timor, bisson, Bissolin=tumore, arbusto, Bussolino.

Tratti storici e sociolinguistici

Storicamente il paese di San Raffaele Cimena ha rappresentato l’ultimo baluardo del Marchesato del Monferrato di fronte alle terre dei Savoia.

Praticamente tutti i tratti elencati di differenze con il torinese sono comuni agli altri paesi ad est e sud di San Raffaele Cimena nella zona collinare. Non sembra vi siano rapporti linguistici particolari con i paesi confinanti a nord del Po (dove inizia il Canavese).

Utilizzare i tratti torinesizzanti (particolarmente la s nelle persone verbali) è sempre stato considerato un fastidioso “darsi delle arie”.  Parallelamente all’altro lato della scala sociale sono le parlate del Monferrato “profondo”. Esse  rappresentano l’idioma “barotto” da evitare: in particolare le C al posto delle T, le I al posto delle U e la A che tende alla O devono essere evitate.

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